Hi, im john green. this is crash course u.s. history and today we return to one of my favorite subjects: economics. Mr. Green, Mr. Green, I dont want to brag, but economics is actually my best subject. Like, I got the bronze medal at the state academic decathlon tournament.among Cstudents. Yeah, I remember, Me from the Past. By the way, thanks for getting that picture into our show. It just goes to show you: aptitude is not destiny. Anyway, economics is about much more than,.
Like, supply and demand curves. ultimately, its about the decisions people make and how those decisions shape their lives and the world. So today were going to turn to one of the least studied but most interesting periods in American history: the Market Revolution. There werent any fancy wars, or politically charged debates, but this discussion shaped the way that most Americans actually live their lives and think about work on a daily basis. Like, if you, or someone you know,.
Goes to work, wellthen, you have the market revolution to thank, or possibly to curse. Intro The Market Revolution, like the Industrial Revolution, was more of a process than an event; it happened in the first half the 19th century, basically the period before the Civil War. This was the socalled Era of Good Feelings because between 1812 and 1836 there was really only one political party, making American politics, you know, much less contentious,.
Also more boring. the market revolution saw many americans move away from producing stuff largely for themselves on independent farmsthat Jeffersonian idealand toward producing goods for sale to others, often others who were very far away, with prices set by competition with other producers. This was closer to Hamiltons American dream. In the end, buddy, you didnt get to be president, but you did win. In many ways this was the beginning of the modern commercial/industrial economy, not.
Just in the united states, but in the world. the first thing that enabled this massive economic shift was new technology, specifically in transportation and communication. Like, in the 18th century, it was very difficult to bring goods to markets, and that meant that markets were local and small. Most trade was overland and transporting goods 30 miles overland in the United States literally cost as much as shipping them to England. So to get something from Cincinnati to New York, for instance, the most efficient way.
Was to go down the mississippi river, through the gulf of mexico, around florida, and then up the Atlantic Coast, which took three months. But that was still less time, and less money, than more direct overland routes. But new transportation changed this. First came better roads, which were largely financed by tolls. Even the federal government got in on the act, building the so called National Road, which reached all the way from the massive city of Cumberland, Maryland across our great.
Nation to the equally metropolitan wheeling, west virginia. Mr. Green, Mr. Green, Mr. Green I know, Me From The Past, West Virginia did not yet exist. AH shut up! More important than roads were canals, which made transport much cheaper and more efficient, and which wouldnt have been possible without the steamboat. Robert Fultons steamboat Clermont first sailed from New York to Albany in 1807, demonstrating the potential of steam powered commerce. And by 1811 there were steamboats.
On the mississippi. the introduction of steamboats set off a mania for canal building. Between 1800 and the depression of 1837, which put a halt to most construction, more than 3000 miles of canals were built. And no state was more instrumental in the canal boom than New York, which in 1825 completed the 363 mile long Erie Canal linking the Great Lakes with the Hudson River, which made New York the nations premier port Other cities like Buffalo, Rochester, and Syracuse grew up along the canal, so much.
The Civil War Part I Crash Course US History 20
Hi im john green this is crash course us history and today we come at last to the civil War, the conflict that in many ways created a nation. So heres what you wont be getting today. We will not be describing battles and tactics. If thats your bag, might I suggest Ken Burns or if you prefer books, like 1000 authors, my favorites being James McPherson and Shelby Foote. And 2. We wont be bashing and/or praising Abraham Lincoln very much, although we do.
Have multiple lincolns here because weve heard thats good for ratings. I mean, to watch or read certain accounts, you would think that the Civil War was a lengthy chess game played by Abraham Lincoln against his cunning opponent Abraham Lincoln, but of course there were other people involved. We are going to quote a fair bit of Lincoln, though, because, you know, that won Tony Kushner an Academy Award nomination. 3. We wont be claiming that the Civil War was somehow secretly about something other.
Than slavery, because that is just so early 20th century. And 4. There will not be a lot of jokes today because hahaha 700,000 people died. Mr. Green, actually only 680,000 people died. Yeah, it depends on how you count, you snivelling little ghoul. But recent estimates are between 680,000 and 800,000 total casualties. Deadlier for Americans than the American Revolution, World War I, World War II, and Vietnam combined. intro So lets start with some basic facts about.
The american civil war. 1861 to 1865, which corresponded with the presidency of abraham Lincoln. The Union, or more colloquially the North, fought against the forces of the Confederate States of America, or the South. Sometimes people call the Union the blue and the confederates the gray, but in fact the uniforms werent very uniform, they were all different kinds of color. And also, with all that dirt and blood, they were all just brown. Alright, lets go to the Thought Bubble.
Youll notice from this map that not all the states that held slaves were part of the Confederacy. The border states of Kentucky, Missouri, Delaware and Maryland allowed slavery and never left the United States. All of these border states were critical to the UnionMaryland was north of the nations capitol in Washington D.C.; Kentucky controlled the Ohio River; Missouri was the gateway to the West; Delaware actually wasnt that important. So none of that should be particularly controversial, unless youre from Delaware, but the causes.
Of the war, thats another story. the civil war was about slaveryactual historians will back me up on this, like David Goldfield, who wrote, Both Northerners and Southerners recognized slavery as the immediate cause of the Civil War. Also, Lincoln said in his second inaugural address, One eighth of the whole population were colored slaves, not distributed generally over the Union, but localized in the southern part of it. These slaves constituted a peculiar and powerful interest. All knew that this interest was,.
Somehow, the cause of the war. that said, in comments lots of people will be like, the war was about agriculture versus industry, or the states rights to protect themselves from the tyranny of a big federal government, but if it were REALLY about that, the Civil War wouldve started during the Nullification crisis in the 1830s, whenas Im sure youll rememberAndrew Jackson said that South Carolina couldnt declare a federal tariff null in their state. Why didnt that cause a Civil War?.
The confederate government passed the first conscription act in american history, implemented national taxes, created a national currency, and had a government bureaucracy of about 70,000 people, more than the federal bureaucracy in Washington D.C. Thanks, Thought Bubble. That said, in the beginning of the war, Lincoln deliberately tried to downplay the slavery angle, arguing that the war was only about preserving the Union. But the war was also about religion, for both.